Final rules allow employers to use health reimbursement arrangements (HRAs) to reimburse employees for the purchase individual insurance coverage, including coverage on an Affordable Care Act Exchange. The rules also allow “excepted benefit HRAs,” which would not have to be integrated with any coverage. The rules generally apply for plan years starting on or after January 1, 2020.
HRA Use Expanded
The final rules expand the use of HRAs by:
- Allowing integration of an HRA with individual health insurance coverage and thereby satisfy the Affordable Care Act’s annual dollar limit and preventive care cost sharing requirements;
- Creating “excepted benefit HRAs” limited in amount and to the types of coverage for which premiums may be reimbursed;
- Providing new premium tax credit eligibility rules for individuals who are offered an HRA integrated with individual health insurance coverage;
- Clarifying that individual health insurance coverage, the premiums of which are reimbursed by an HRA or qualified small employer HRA (QSEHRA), does not become part of an ERISA plan when certain conditions are met; and
- Adding new special enrollment for the individual market for individuals who gain access to HRAs integrated with individual health insurance coverage or who are provided a QSEHRA.
The final regulations add conditions on individual coverage HRAs intended to prevent a negative impact on the individual market.
Integration With Individual Coverage
Almost any employer can satisfy Affordable Care Act reimbursement requirements by having employees buy their own individual coverage. An employers may integrate an HRA with individual health coverage only if:
- Participants and dependents are actually enrolled in individual health insurance coverage (though not coverage that consists solely of excepted benefits) for each month they are covered by the HRA;
- Coverage is offered to a class of employees to whom a traditional group health plan is not offered;
- Coverage is offered on the same terms in amount and conditions to all employees within each class (though certain variations based on age are allowed);
- An opt out option is provided for individuals who prefer Affordable Care Act Exchange coverage, but would not be eligible for the premium tax credit if enrolled in an employer health plan such as an HRA; and
- Substantiation and notice requirements are met.
To guard against adverse selection, the final rules add a minimum class size requirement that will apply to certain classes of employees in certain instances. Classes of employees may include full-time employees; part-time employees; seasonal employees; employees who are included in a unit of employees covered by a collective bargaining agreement in which the plan sponsor participates; employees who have not satisfied a waiting period for coverage; employees who have not attained age 25 prior to the beginning of the plan year; nonresident aliens with no U.S.-based income; employees whose primary site of employment is in the same rating area; and groups combining any of these classes of employee.
Excepted Benefit HRAs
An employer that wants to offer an HRA that is not integrated with non-HRA group coverage, Medicare, TRICARE, or individual health insurance coverage may do so as an excepted benefit. As excepted benefits, these HRAs would not be subject to the employer group plan rules, including the market reforms under the Affordable Care Act. An excepted benefit HRA:
- Must not be an integral part of the plan;
- Must provide benefits that are limited in amount ($1,800 per year, adjusted for inflation after 2020);
- Cannot provide reimbursement for premiums for certain health insurance coverage; and
- Must be made available under the same terms to all similarly situated individuals.